Nursing care is a complex of activities aimed to perform overall service for patients and doctor’s prescriptions. Nursing care is a necessary part of treatment. A lot of rules and requirements of nursing care were known long time ago. When medicine just began to develop and doctors were helpless, when dealing with majority of cases, proper nursing care was the only way to rehab the ill and the wounded. With time passing by, medical science discovered reasons and development of many diseases and thus designed effective curing. However, despite scientific progress taking place, modern technology and effective medicines available and complicated surgeries being done, proper nursing care, even these days, produces significant impact on human health recovery. The history proved more than once that proper nursing care had saved thousands of human lives. There are many cases when dedication of nurses, proper physical and psychological condition, obedience to hygienic requirements and strict following medical prescriptions brought people back to life. There might be a vice versa – patients with no proper nursing care had significant complications and there were even death cases. If a patient is hospitalized, the nursing care rests with the hospital staff. If a patient is at home, the nursing care rests with their family members, who are consulted and checked by doctors.
Nursing care doesn’t assume only knowledge and skills. Moral attitude is important as well. Disease and pain caused with it make a patient irritated, feeling worried and non-satisfied. Sometimes there may be a feeling of despair and displeasure with everybody around. Family members involved in nursing care have to be sensitive, tactful and be able to produce psychological impact. It is important to prevent the patient from going deeply into negativism of bad condition. Proper nursing care assumes creation of pleasant surrounding on all stages of treatment.
Being reserved and calm in attitude helps patients to get used to their condition which helps to maintain doctor’s prescriptions. What matters most of all when you help somebody to get better is ability to make the patient feel optimistic.
Nursing care may vary in every particular case, which depends on age, sex and kind of the patient’s disease. Progression degree means a lot as well.
Now let us see the principles of general nursing care.
This assumes creation of hygienic condition and care regime according to the patient’s condition. Rational nutrition and strict following doctor’s prescription should be provided to the patient. A number of activities, related to nursing care, depend on the patient’s state, subject to which the doctor may prescribe strict bed confinement, sitting is not allowed; partial bed rest – walking is permitted. There can also be the so-called general regime, which has no restrictions. The lesser restrictions, the more they can do on their own. However, with self-service absolutely possible, family members involved in nursing would have to make comfortable conditions and psychological climate necessary to get better as well as to check the menu and other doctor’s prescriptions. Most of activities mentioned are applicable to any patient treated at home. Depending on the patient’s state the activities are to be performed by themselves or by the family.
The room provided for the patient must be isolated, light and warm enough with good ventilation ability even in winter time. Ventilation should be provided in the morning, in the afternoon, after dinner and in the evening before sleeping. To prevent the patient from getting cold, he/she should be covered with blanket. Head may be protected with a towel or a scarf, with face remaining open. During warm seasons the windows may be open all the time. Bulbs should be covered with non-transparent lampshades; a night light should be used at nights.
Cleaning should be organized twice a day: in the morning, when the patient is awake and in the evening before sleeping. It is necessary to wash or sweep the floor and moisten windows, doors and furniture.
Seriously ill patients are carried in a wheelchair or a hand-barrow, in a careful manner. Before taking the patient to another location it is necessary to check if the bed is ready to be used and the stuff for nursing is at hand. This group of patients needs a buckram, a bed-pan and urine bag. Undressing has to be assisted in this case.
The bed must have sufficient length and width. It has be covered with mattress and sheet. Some diseases assume thin mattress and wooden board back, if prescribed by the doctor. The bed should not be located too close to the heating. It is wise to organize the access to the patient from both sides of the bed.
The bed things must be replaced carefully. The patient should be placed on the bed edge, and the free part of sheet must be rolled bandage-like. The empty part of the bed should be covered with a new sheet, where the patient must be put. When the patient lies on the clean sheet, its edges are fixed to mattress with safety pins.
Personal hygiene is rather important. Washing should be provided in the morning and in the evening so that the skin is clean and in normal condition. The patient’s skin is polluted with dust and sweat; perineum skin is polluted with urogenital and intestinal canal excretion. Unless prohibited by the doctor, the patient shall be washed in bath tub or assisted while taking shower. If taking bath and shower is prohibited, the patient’s body must be washed carefully with a cotton towel. The face, neck and upper part of the body should be washed daily, while the hands should be washed before every meal.
For conclusion, the author has to state that in the past and even in the present day time proper nursing contributed more to recovery of patients than medical treatment. It is a difficult work, however it is very important and appreciative.
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