1- Jennifer Ayre posted Nov 8, 2016 2:02 PM
In the past five years, do I feel there has been a shift in the prevention of disease? The answer for me is yes. Much focus on the Zika virus and what is the primary prevention. Zika was first discovered in 1947 and is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (McNeill, et al., 2016). In 1952, the first human cases of Zika were detected and since then, outbreaks of Zika have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands (McNeill, et al., 2016). Before 2007, at least 14 cases of Zika had been documented. Because the symptoms of Zika are like those of many other diseases, many cases may not have been recognized (McNeill, et al., 2016). Local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission has been reported in the continental United States. Zika infection during pregnancy can cause a birth defect of the brain called microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. There is no vaccine to prevent Zika. The best way to prevent diseases spread by mosquitoes is to protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites.
The goal of primary prevention is to prevent new disease cases by reducing risk factors. Some examples of primary prevention of the Zika virus is wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Treat your clothing and gear with permethrin or buy pre-treated items. Use mosquito replant and when used as directed, these insect repellents are proven safe and effective even for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Stay in places with air conditioning and window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside. Take steps to control mosquitoes inside and outside your home. Sleep under a mosquito bed net if air conditioned or screened rooms are not available or if sleeping outdoors.
The goal of secondary prevention is to detect the disease to lead to an early treatment and therefore improving the patient prognosis. Screening test are examples of secondary prevention measures. Diagnosis of Zika is based on a person’s recent travel history, symptoms, and test results. A blood or urine test can confirm a Zika infection. Lastly tertiary prevention manages an exciting disease. Unfortunately, Zika has no cure, therefore an infected person must get plenty of rest. Drink fluids to prevent dehydration. Take medicine such as acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain.
As nurses, we should invest our time into patient education on primary prevention. By teaching patients how to reduce risk factors of certain diseases I believe is the easiest and cheapest effects that could change our patients lives. Insurance companies need to invest their time and money into secondary prevention. This process should involve reasonable price screening and non-invasive procedures.
McNeill, C., Shreve, M., Jarrett, A., & Perry, C. (2016, June). Zika: What Providers Need to Know. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(6), 359-366. doi:10.1016/j.nurpar.2016.04.009
2- Tiffany Wolfsberger posted Nov 8, 2016 11:24 AM
Prevention of disease has been a hot topic of discussion for the past five years. It has taken a shift toward the increased prevention of diseases. One area that has been in the news for years is requirement of immunizations for our children. A new immunization for human papilloma virus (HPV) has been in news lately. An article of interest called “Will your sixth-grade girl have to get HVP shot?; A state proposal would require the vaccine, which protects against a sexually transmitted virus” discussed the possibility of state representative to introduce legislation plans to mandate sixth grade girls to be vaccinated against HPV. The article discusses some reasons the immunization is controversial. It discusses bills in Ohio and Texas that have been stopped. It also discusses the possible price tag associated with the vaccination at $360 per child.
As a mother of a little girl, in my opinion, there is no cost too great for the prevention of cervical cancer, which is “the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women globally” (Ferlay et al., 2008). HPV is also the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the United States as published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It also goes undiagnosed, which is the major factor in transmission. HPV has also been linked to several other types of cancer including vulva, vagina, penis, anus and head and neck cancer. (Rollins, 2011, para. 2) The advantages and health need for this immunization is undeniable. “Vaccination alone, compared to the status quo, could lead to a 40% reduction in cervical cancer mortality over the lifetime of the vaccinated population.” (Rollins, 2011, para. 11) This immunization would be classified as a primary level of prevention. In my opinion, primary level of prevention needs the greatest availability of resources including funding, advertising and time. Prevention is the key to our health and would be the most cost effective for all parties. Without these resources, our children will be affected!
Bischoff, L. A. (2007, Feb 26). Will your sixth-grade girl have to get HVP shot? ; A state
proposal would require the vaccine, which protects against a sexually transmitted
virus. Dayton Daily News, A1.
Ferlay, J., Shin, H., Bray, F., Forman, D., Mathers, C., & Parkin, D. (2008). Cancer
incidence and mortality worldwide in 2008. Retrieved from http://globocan. iare.fr
Rollins, J. A. (2011, Nov/Dec). Protecting Children from HPV: Challenges and Opportunities.
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