The elements needed to be included in a good title should contain the critical words or a phrase that describes the article; identify the major variables and the population. The title of this article has identified the independent and dependent variables which is the adaption and effects of the training program to help patients with end stage renal disease (Coughlan, Cronin, and Ryan, 2007; Nieswiadomy, 2008 p.380).
The authors of this article have outlined the purpose, aims, and objectives of the study. It also provides the methods used which is quantitative approach to collect the data, the results, conclusion of the study. It is important that the author should present the essential components of the study in the abstract because the abstract may be the only section that is read by readers to decide if the study is useful or not or to continue reading (Coughlan, Cronin, and Ryan, 2007; Ingham-Broomfield, 2008 p.104; Stockhausen and Conrick, 2002; Nieswiadomy, 2008 p.380).
This article hasn’t provided an introduction; however a lengthy summary of the study which identifies the problem, purpose and rationale for the research study has been provided in the background. The introduction should give the reader a general sense of what the document is about, and preferably persuade the reader to continue reading. This prepares the reader for reading the rest of the document (Burns & Grove, 2001 p.636; Nieswiadomy, 2008 p.380; Stockhausen and Conrick, 2002).
As Burns and Grove (2001) & Polit and Hungler (1997) as cited in Ingham-Broomfield (2008 p.104) mentioned that the primary purpose of the literature review is to discuss what is known, gain broad background and understanding of the available information related to the study. As Coughlan, Cronin, and Ryan (2007) stated that literature review should also help to identify any gaps in the literature relating to the problem and suggest how those gaps might be filled. The authors of this article has not provided any review of literature and this could misinform the reader what the main focus of the study; however, several appropriate references were used in the background. The terms used in the key concepts are adequately defined and consistent with the topic. The background of the study introduces the previous knowledge or what is already known which is to investigate the effectiveness of an ATP designed to help ESRD patients to cope with stressors while receiving haemodialysis treatment. The study needs to be undertaken due to limited rationale of adaptation training for patients with ESRD. The authors have clearly stated the gaps in the knowledge which makes the information considerable and lays a solid basis for the study. This study has clear significance for nursing which will deliver effective understanding and knowledge on patients with ESRD. The proposed paradigm and method of the study is a good match between the research problem which will provide evidence if the ATP is helpful or not to the patients with ESRD. …