In Renegotiating health care: Resolving conflict to build collaboration, Leonard Marcus (1995) suggested a 10 step problem-solving process (pp. 28-43) to reduce conflict:
Step one: Accept conflict
Describe how the original conflict was framed.
Describe a constructive reframing of the conflict.
Discuss how the reframe will move the conflict process towards problem-solving.
Step two: Recognize the consequences
Describe the costs of the conflict in time and morale for the conflict parties.
Describe the costs of the conflict in terms of quality of patient care.
Discuss the potential long term impact on healthcare organization if the conflict is unresolved, or retreats to the background, simmering unseen.
Step three: Formalize the motive
Describe motives for each party to resolve the conflict.
Discuss how the motive of appearance will enhance problem-solving.
Choose the ADR process (negotiation, mediation, facilitation, and/or arbitration) that will resolve the conflict and discuss the reasons for your choice.
Step four: Begin the learning process
Discuss two commonalities (feelings, experiences) the parties share. Describe how empathy can help the parties to understand their differences. Relate how recognition and respect emerged through the learning process.
Step five: Find the logic
Describe what the conflict was really about.
Discuss how the positions in the conflict can be reframed into shared needs and interests. Describe what each party hopes to achieve in solving the conflict.
Step six: Check the choices
Describe what changes each party will consider to resolve the conflict.
Discuss possible solutions each party can offer resolve the conflict i.e., a meeting, an exchange, an agreement, a compromise, an apology.
Choose specific actions each party will do to resolve the conflict
Step seven: Ponder the possibilities
Describe what the parties accomplished through collaborative problem-solving. Discuss the tangible rewards to the organization from the solution.
Discuss intangible rewards of conflict resolution; satisfaction, peacefulness, and hope.
Step eight: Find common purpose
Discuss how conflict resolution can positively impact the workplace setting as a whole. Describe how conflict resolution can constructively impact the system of health care. Discuss what ADR process
Step nine: Anticipate conflict
Discuss what potential conflicts might emerge in the future.
Describe how to recognize signs of problems before issues escalate into conflict. Describe what the parties can do to prevent and manage conflicts in the future.
Step ten: Move beyond conflict