The Pact of ‘Umar

3. Research into the author – does he have any biases (is he a Jewish man writing about the Holocaust? A southerner writing about Reconstruction?) What other works has he written? Where did he go to school? 4. Broad themes in the book – is the book focused on economic history or social history, for example. What time period was the book written in, and does it have any effect on the book? Is it realistic or idealistic? 5. Does the book reinforce what you’ve learned, or is it revisionist (that is, a new way of looking at an event)? 6. What types of sources did the author use? Do they appear to be primary or secondary?
October 1, 2020
discuss the impact of these widespread intrusions, and comment on McKinnon's self-proclaimed motivations. Describe McKinnon in the context of the frameworks and theories of cyber-crime and cyber criminals discussed in the classroom. Are the efforts to extradite McKinnon to the United States simply a political stunt, or are they an important precedent in prosecuting international cyber-crimes?
October 2, 2020

The Pact of ‘Umar

The Pact of Umar’ was a document written by the believers of Christian, Judaism and non-Muslim monotheists faiths to the Muslim leaders which entailed guidelines for safeguarding their relationship and ensuring security of the Christians. Stipulations of the pact can be divided into restrictions and privileges to draw a distinctive boundary between the respective conditions and rights of the agreements. Within the pact, the restrictions meant that no non-Muslim believers would contradict the agreements since it would attract massive repercussions on their offspring, property and security. On the other hand, the privileges meant the rights that the Muslims would be accorded by the Christians and other no-Muslims as a show of respect and appreciation. In other words, the restrictions and privileges represented the don’ts and dos of the Christians and related religions towards the Muslims. The Pact stated that the members of other faiths aligned to Christian faith had to stick to the obligations so as to be assured of security by the Umar’, commander of the Muslims. As a matter of fact, the contents of the letter required the non-Muslims to subject to the Muslims by evading instances that may result in conflicts, for example, staying away from building their worship places in the vicinity of Islamic cities. Failure to adhere to these rules meant breaking the agreement thus attracting punishments from their counterparts. Desisting from holding public ceremonies, not to teach their children Quran and avoidance of emulating the cultural practices of the Muslims meant respect to Muslims and whoever trespassed would be subjected to consequences of breaching the agreement (Stillman, 1979). The provisions of the pact also enlisted a section with privileges that would be rendered to the Muslims such as opening gates for them to guests and offering them food and lodging to travelers. Additionally, to ensure a reputable relationship...  

The Pact of Umar’ was a document written by the believers of Christian, Judaism and non-Muslim monotheists faiths to the Muslim leaders which entailed guidelines for safeguarding their relationship and ensuring security of the Christians. Stipulations of the pact can be divided into restrictions and privileges to draw a distinctive boundary between the respective conditions and rights of the agreements. Within the pact, the restrictions meant that no non-Muslim believers would contradict the agreements since it would attract massive repercussions on their offspring, property and security. On the other hand, the privileges meant the rights that the Muslims would be accorded by the Christians and other no-Muslims as a show of respect and appreciation. In other words, the restrictions and privileges represented the don’ts and dos of the Christians and related religions towards the Muslims.

The Pact stated that the members of other faiths aligned to Christian faith had to stick to the obligations so as to be assured of security by the Umar’, commander of the Muslims. As a matter of fact, the contents of the letter required the non-Muslims to subject to the Muslims by evading instances that may result in conflicts, for example, staying away from building their worship places in the vicinity of Islamic cities. Failure to adhere to these rules meant breaking the agreement thus attracting punishments from their counterparts. Desisting from holding public ceremonies, not to teach their children Quran and avoidance of emulating the cultural practices of the Muslims meant respect to Muslims and whoever trespassed would be subjected to consequences of breaching the agreement (Stillman, 1979).

The provisions of the pact also enlisted a section with privileges that would be rendered to the Muslims such as opening gates for them to guests and offering them food and lodging to travelers. Additionally, to ensure a reputable relationship…

 


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